Radiation is a therapy that uses external beam radiation, which administers ionizing radiation to a location to kill abnormal cells. External beam radiation uses a guided machine that produces a high dose of radiation and aims it at the tumor location. This radiation techniques can be given alone or in combination with another treatment, such as surgery. However, the effectiveness of external beam radiation remains unclear and controversial.
This is due to the many complications associated with the use of radiation therapy. One of the most concerning complications is the increased risk for radiation-induced sarcoma. This means that radiation treatment on the GCT of the bone can lead to the tumors becoming cancerous in 1-4% of patients (1). In GCT of the bone patients with cancerous transformation, radiation is the key determinant which accounts for 70% of cancerous transformations and has poor prognosis (2). Due to the concerns of lack of effectiveness of this treatment and the complications associated, it is generally recommended to avoid the use of radiation in GCT of the bone patients (3). However, it can vary based on disease grade, recurrences, and patient characteristics.
Consult with your healthcare team about the risks and benefits of all options.